logical starting point
The logical starting point of education is naturally the birth of human society. The transformation from ape to human is due to productive labor, and the ape gradually forms the main mechanism with the brain and hands as the core in the labor. The brain can think and the hand can operate, which makes people different from ordinary animals and become “advanced animals.”
Only with the subject mechanism can it become a subject with practical cognitive ability, and humans can promote themselves to cognition and transformation The subject of the objective world, thus turning the objective world into an object of human transformation and understanding. But to understand and transform the objective world requires the ability of the subject. Human society is a form of human existence created by humans in social practice.
Ancient Social Education
The generation of ancient social education is directly related to the natural ecological environment in which people live. It originated directly in the closest way of making a living of the ancient ancestors, so its content involves various fields of social life. There is a record about the social life of the primitive clan in “The Corpse of Kings”:
The world of the Flint Clan has a lot of water in the world, so it teaches the people to fish. Fishing and hunting are one of the oldest ways of mankind to make a living. In the Neolithic Cultural Sites of China, a lot of traces in this respect have been preserved. Combining the legendary ancient education with the spread and application of livelihood technology helps explain the characteristics of ancient education.
At the same time, the legendary ancient education also reflects the main characteristics of the regional clan culture at that time, as well as the main form of knowledge and cultural communication between the clan tribes and within the clan.
A tribe living in a lush mountainous area will invent and master hunting techniques earlier; a tribe living in a plain area will invent and master agricultural production techniques earlier, and a tribe living in a flood-prone zone will easily invade You will be forced to explore ways to control water hazards.
According to legend, Hou Ji, who was appointed as a farmer and responsible for teaching the crops and other crops to all tribes, lived on the loess plateau where the land is fertile and suitable for the growth of millet; The tribes live in the Yellow River Basin, which has been flooded and flooded for years. Other ancient characters such as Qi, Xi, He, and Kui who are responsible for a certain type of enlightenment actually represent clan tribes with certain cultural expertise.
The distinctive characteristics of this regional culture reflect the diversity and imbalance of Chinese prehistoric culture, and the trade contacts of barter and barter between different regions, the migration of clan tribes, the emergence and development of extra-ethnic marriages, etc. Communication has become an important channel for technical and cultural exchanges among clan tribes.
This way of communication derives from the so-called “education” in ancient times. The important reason is that the earliest notion of education in China included not only the diffusion and spread of the Central Plains culture in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River to Siyi, but also the surrounding minority tribal groups Subjugation and naturalization of the Chinese people. Therefore, war and conquest were also given the function of promoting enlightenment.
“Lv’s Spring and Autumn Calling Classes” called Shun’s expedition to cut Miao people for the sake of moving customs and customs; Yu attacked tribes such as Cao, Wei, Quyao, Youhu, etc., to promote their political and religious ideology, this kind of strong beautification, It reflects the broad meaning and function of education in primitive clan society.
In the West, the origin of education was greatly influenced by religious organizations: priests recognized the importance of education and established a school system. In Europe, many of the original universities had a Catholic background. After the Reformation of Scotland, the new National Scottish Church was established.
Chinese education began with Chinese classical writings, not religious organizations. In the early days, China had appointed educated officials to manage the empire. The imperial examination system used to select officials was established in the Sui Dynasty. Tang Taizong of the Tang Dynasty perfected the imperial examination system.
At the end of the 19th century, the pioneers such as He Ziyuan and Qiu Fengjia successfully established new schools such as Yunandong Elementary School, Tongren School, Xingmin Middle School, and Shima Two Elementary Schools, which trained a large number of valuable talents for the subsequent 1911 Revolution and national construction. Subsequently, China’s modern education system has been continuously improved and strengthened.
In the 1990s, China’s education system changed again, and private capital re-entered the education field.
The origin of Japanese education is closely related to religion. The school is a temple for young people who want to study Buddhism and become monks. later,
Children who want to learn will go to “Tera-Koya” (meaning temple hut) to learn how to read and write Japanese.
Institutional education in India has a long history. According to research, India had a perfect education system before the rise of Buddhism. The modernization of its education can be divided into two major development stages, the colonial period and the post-independence period. The colonial period was the initiation stage of Indian education modernization.
Including the transition period from traditional education to modern education (1498 ～ early 19th century); the formation of the colonial Indian education system, namely the westernization period of Indian education (early 19th-century ～ 20th century Early), the rise and development of national education (early 20th century ~ 1947 independence) three periods. After independence in 1947, Indian education entered its full development stage